1994 年 1994 巻 20 号 p. 105-116,216
The aim of this paper is to analyze the role of the self-study examination system in Chinese higher education after briefly examining higher education policies following the Cultural Revolution.
Since the end of the 1970's, the necessity of expansion of higher education in order to accomplish the ‘Four Modernizations’ has been recognized. Moreover, for individuals obtaining a higher education level diploma has become the way to acquire social prestige and enhance living conditions and the prerequisite for paticular jobs. In spite of such social pressures, the rapid expansion of higher education is restrained by such reasons as shortages of necessary funds and fears of the deteriorating quality of higher education. Therefore, throughout 1980's, the roles of regular and adult higher education institutions have become clearer by way of improving their educational conditions and imposing restrictions on entrance. The self-study examination system was introduced and has expanded under such a social background. This is a system whereby a person can obtain a higher education level deploma and gain the same wage and treatment as graduated of higher education institutions after passing certain required subjects.Since the introduction of the examination in Beijing in 1981, the number of candidates has increased year by year from 2, 686 in 1981 to 1, 470, 000 in 1990. The cumulative number of people who have obtained some diploma of higher education by 1990 is 530, 000.At the time of the introduction, this system was independent from regular and adult higher education institutions as the way of obtaining a higher education level diploma.But by the end of 1980's, it has been a part of the higher education system with the roles of regular and adult higher education institutions made clearer.One important role is to make access to higher education easier, while an other is to make the criteria of higher education clearer. The self-study examination system, having such importnant roles, will continue to play an important position in Chinese higher education.