1988 Volume 37 Issue 7 Pages 444-451
Scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is becoming a popular technique to observe conducting solid surfaces with a resolution of -Å. The principle of this method is first described briefly. The experimental results presented here include atomic images of semiconductors and layered compounds and the topography of metal surfaces with nm resolution. STM can be used not only in vacuum but also in air or in soution. Several examples in this category are also presented. There are many attempts to observe insulating adsorbates such as DNA on conducting substrates. The principle and application of two of STM families, scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) and atomic force microscope (AFM), are described as well. Finally application of STM to ultramicro-processing is discussed.