Background: Gallstone disease (GSD) is a major public health problem that is associated with a number of risk factors.
Methods: We conducted a case–control study of 407 participants comprising 207 cases with GSD and 200 controls without GSD, as confirmed by ultrasonography. The participants completed a questionnaire and underwent physical and ultrasonographic examination. The risk factors examined were age, sex, BMI, use of oral contraceptives, diabetes mellitus, cirrhosis, thalassemia, dyspepsia, family history of gallstone disease, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and dietary history.
Results: BMI, fat content of dietary meat, and smoking were associated with GSD. When compared to participants with a BMI below 25, participants with a BMI of 25 or higher had a multivariate relative risk of 4.1 (95% CI, 2.5–6.7). Participants who consumed meat with moderate fat content or high fat content had respective relative risks of 2.5 and 2.9 (95% CI, 1.5–4.2 and 1.5–5.6), when compared to those who consumed meat with a low fat content. Also, the multivariate relative risk for former smokers, as compared to never smokers, was 2.4 (95% CI, 1.1–5.2).
Conclusions: High BMI, consumption of high-fat meat, and smoking were associated with gallstone disease.
2009 by the Japan Epidemiological Association