Background: Neighborhood deprivation has been shown in many studies to be an influential factor in cardiovascular disease risk. However, no previous studies have examined the effect of neighborhood socioeconomic conditions on the risk of stroke in Asian countries.
Methods: This study investigated whether neighborhood deprivation was associated with the risk of stroke and stroke death using data from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study. We calculated the adjusted hazard ratios of stroke mortality (mean follow-up, 16.4 years) and stroke incidence (mean follow-up, 15.4 years) according to the area deprivation index (ADI) among 90 843 Japanese men and women aged 40–69 years. A Cox proportional-hazard regression model using a shared frailty model was applied.
Results: The adjusted hazard ratios of stroke incidence, in order of increasing deprivation with reference to the least deprived area, were 1.16 (95% CI, 1.04–1.29), 1.12 (95% CI, 1.00–1.26), 1.18 (95% CI, 1.02–1.35), and 1.19 (95% CI, 1.01–1.41), after adjustment for individual socioeconomic conditions. Behavioral and psychosocial factors attenuated the association, but the association remained significant. The associations were explained by adjusting for biological cardiovascular risk factors. No significant association with stroke mortality was identified.
Conclusions: Our results indicate that the neighborhood deprivation level influences stroke incidence in Japan, suggesting that area socioeconomic conditions could be a potential target for public health intervention to reduce the risk of stroke.
2015 Kaori Honjo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.