Journal of Epidemiology
Online ISSN : 1349-9092
Print ISSN : 0917-5040
ISSN-L : 0917-5040
Original Article
Dietary Patterns and Serum Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase in Japanese Men and Women
Hinako NanriMegumi HaraYuichiro NishidaChisato ShimanoeKazuyo NakamuraYasuki HigakiTakeshi ImaizumiNaoto TaguchiTatsuhiko SakamotoMikako HoritaKoichi ShinchiAkatsuki KokazeKeitaro Tanaka
Author information
Supplementary material

2015 Volume 25 Issue 5 Pages 378-386


Background: Although specific foods and nutrients have been examined as potential determinants of serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) concentrations, the relationship between dietary patterns and GGT remains unknown. The present cross-sectional study aimed to determine relationships between dietary patterns and GGT concentrations, and the effects of lifestyle factors on GGT.
Methods: Relationships between dietary patterns and GGT were analyzed in 9803 Japanese individuals (3723 men and 6080 women age 40–69 years) without a history of liver diseases or elevated serum aminotransferase. We examined major dietary patterns by factor analysis of 46 items determined from a validated, short food frequency questionnaire.
Results: We defined dietary patterns as healthy, Western, seafood, bread, and dessert. The healthy pattern was inversely related to GGT in men (odds ratio [OR] for highest vs lowest quartile, 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57–0.92; P < 0.01 for trend) and women (OR 0.82; 95% CI, 0.66–1.0; P = 0.05 for trend), whereas the seafood pattern was positively related to GGT in men (OR 1.27; 95% CI, 1.01–1.61; P = 0.03 for trend) and women (OR 1.21; 95% CI, 0.98–1.49; P = 0.05 for trend). Male-specific inverse associations with GGT were found for bread and dessert patterns (OR 0.63; 95% CI, 0.50–0.80 and OR 0.53; 95% CI, 0.41–0.68, respectively; P < 0.01 for both trends). Seafood or bread patterns and alcohol consumption significantly interacted with GGT in men (P = 0.03 and <0.01 for interaction, respectively) and between the dessert pattern and body mass index or smoking habit in women (P = 0.03 and <0.01, respectively, for interaction).
Conclusions: Dietary patterns may be important determinants of GGT, and their possible clinical implications warrant further investigation.

Information related to the author
© 2015 Hinako Nanri et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Previous article Next article