2017 年 27 巻 12 号 p. 584-589
Background: Epidemiological studies have shown the associations of ambient temperature and particulate matter (PM) air pollution with respiratory morbidity and mortality. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been well characterized. The aim of this study is to investigate the associations of temperature and fine and coarse PM with fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), a well-established biomarker of respiratory inflammation.
Methods: We conducted a longitudinal panel study involving six repeated FeNO tests among 33 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients from April to June 2013 in Shanghai, China. Hourly temperature and PM concentrations were obtained from a nearby fixed-site monitoring station. We then explored the associations between temperature, PM, and FeNO using linear mixed-effect models incorporated with distributed lag nonlinear models for the lagged and nonlinear associations. The interactions between temperature and PM were evaluated using stratification analyses.
Results: We found that both low and high temperature, as well as increased fine and coarse PM, were significantly associated with FeNO. The cumulative relative risk of FeNO was 1.75% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04–2.94) comparing 15 °C to the referent temperature (24 °C) over lags 0–9 days. A 10 μg/m3 increase in fine and coarse PM concentrations were associated with 1.18% (95% CI, 0.18–2.20) and 1.85% (95% CI, 0.62–3.09) FeNO in lag 0–1 days, respectively. PM had stronger effects on cool days than on warm days.
Conclusions: This study suggested low ambient temperature, fine PM, and coarse PM might elevate the levels of respiratory inflammation. Our findings may help understand the epidemiological evidence linking temperature, particulate air pollution, and respiratory health.