2019 Volume 29 Issue 9 Pages 354-362
Background: Severe pediatric cases of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), herpangina (HA), and associated complications caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection have brought substantial public health impact in Asia. This study aimed to elucidate the epidemiology of these pediatric cases in Japan.
Methods: A nationwide survey was conducted using stratified random sampling of hospital pediatric departments. We estimated the number of inpatients with HFMD, HA, and associated complications between April 1 and September 30, 2010, during which EV71 was circulating predominantly. Factors associated with severe cases with ≥7 days of admission, sequelae, or outcome of death were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression.
Results: During the 6-month epidemic period, the number of pediatric inpatients aged <15 years was about 2,900 (estimated cumulative incidence of hospitalized cases: 17.0 per 100,000 population). Severe cases were significantly associated with younger age. Compared to patients ≥5 years of age, the odds ratios (ORs) for <1 year of age and 1 to <3 years of age were 5.74 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.14–15.4) and 2.94 (95% CI, 1.02–8.51), respectively. Elevated ORs for hyperglycemia (plasma glucose level of ≥8.3 mmol/L) on admission (OR 3.60; 95% CI, 0.94–13.8) were also observed.
Conclusions: Disease burden of pediatric inpatients with HFMD, HA, and associated complications in Japan was described for the first time. During an EV71 epidemic, younger age and, suggestively, hyperglycemia may have been critical factors requiring more careful treatment.