Journal of Epidemiology
Online ISSN : 1349-9092
Print ISSN : 0917-5040
ISSN-L : 0917-5040
A Prospective Cohort Study of Bedroom Warming With a Heating System and Its Association With Common Infectious Diseases in Children During Winter in Japan
Fuyu MiyakeChimed-Ochir OdgerelYuko MineTatsuhiko KuboToshiharu IkagaYoshihisa Fujino
ジャーナル オープンアクセス 早期公開

論文ID: JE20190312


Background: Customarily, bedrooms in Japan are left unheated. Although several studies have reported that the use of a heating system has positive outcomes on respiratory infection and asthma, the preventive effect of heating systems against infectious diseases in children is not well known.

Methods: We conducted a cohort study using two questionnaire surveys, one before the winter season in November, 2018 and the second after winter in March, 2019. Participants were 155 children who did not use a heating system in the bedroom and 156 children who did.

Results: Having a heated bedroom with a heating system was associated with decreased odds for the frequency of cold (≥3 times) (adjust odds ratio [AOR] 0.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.19–0.65), duration of fever (≥3 days) (AOR 0.38; 95% CI, 0.22–0.66), duration of medicine for a cold (≥3 days) (AOR 0.91; 95% CI, 0.87–0.95), hospital visit due to cold (≥3 days) (AOR 0.54; 95% CI, 0.31–0.94), absence from school or nursery (≥3 days) (AOR 0.43; 95% CI, 0.27–0.70), influenza infection (AOR 0.43; 95% CI, 0.26–0.71), and gastroenteritis (AOR 0.39; 95% CI, 0.21–0.72). Influenza vaccination reduced the odds of influenza infection (AOR 0.36; 95% CI, 0.22–0.59) and absence from school or nursery (≥3 days) (AOR 0.62; 95% CI, 0.39–0.99).

Conclusion: This study implies that the heating of bedrooms may have a preventive effect against infections among children. Broader dissemination of this knowledge in Japan will require cultural change through public health awareness.

© 2020 Fuyu Miyake et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.