Journal of Epidemiology
Online ISSN : 1349-9092
Print ISSN : 0917-5040
ISSN-L : 0917-5040
The Associated Factors of Low Birthweight Among Term Singletons in Japan: A Pregnancy Birth Registry Analysis
Yoshifumi KasugaMiho IidaYuya TanakaMasumi TamagawaKeita HasegawaSatoru IkenoueYasunori SatoMamoru TanakaDaigo Ochiai
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JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS Advance online publication
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Article ID: JE20210483

version.2: August 10, 2022
version.1: April 02, 2022

Background: Progress in reducing the global low birthweight (LBW) has been insufficient. Although the focus has been on preventing preterm birth, evidence regarding LBW in term births is limited. Despite its low preterm birth prevalence, Japan has a higher LBW proportion than other developed countries. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of LBW in term singleton births and its associated factors using a national database.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data of neonates registered in the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology Successive Pregnancy Birth Registry System who were born 2013–2017. Exclusion criteria included stillbirths, delivery after 42 gestational weeks, and missing data. Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the maternal and perinatal factors associated with LBW in term singletons using the data of 715,414 singleton neonates.

Results: The overall prevalence of LBW was 18.3%, and 35.7% of LBWs originated from singleton term pregnancies. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that both modifiable and non-modifiable factors were independently associated with LBW in term neonates. The modifiable maternal factors included pre-pregnancy underweight, inadequate gestational weight gain, and smoking during pregnancy, while the non-modifiable factors included younger maternal age, nulliparity, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, cesarean section delivery, female offspring, and congenital anomalies.

Conclusion: Using the Japanese pregnancy birth registry data, more than one-third of LBWs were found to originate from singleton term pregnancies. Both modifiable and non-modifiable factors were independently associated with LBW in term neonates. Prevention strategies on modifiable risk factor control will be effective in reducing LBW worldwide.

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© 2022 Yoshifumi Kasuga et al.

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