2001 年 11 巻 4 号 p. 180-189
An eleven-year follow-up study was carried out to elucidate the changes in the level of environmental exposure to cadmium (Cd) from rice after soil replacement of polluted paddy fields and these effects on urinary excretion of Cd in male inhabitants of a Cd-polluted area in Toyama, Japan. In addition, the prevalence of renal tubular dysfunction (RTD) was examined to clarify the progress of Cd-induced RTD. One hundred and twenty-seven male inhabitants born between 1914 and 1929 in 11 districts of the Cd-polluted Jinzu River basin and 31 reference subjects in 2 adjacent districts were examined twice in 1985-86 and 1996-97. The geometric means of Cd concentrations in polished rice (Cd-R) in the Cd-polluted areas were 0.18 ppm in 1985 and 0.21 ppm in 1986; these values were significantly higher than those of the reference areas (0.13 ppm in 1985 and 0.12 ppm in 1986). After 11 years, the Cd-R levels were significantly decreased to approximately half (0.08 ppm in 1996, 0.12 ppm in 1997) due to soil replacement of polluted paddy fields, which has been carried out since 1980. The mean Cd levels in urine (Cd-U) were significantly reduced from 7.9 and 9.5*g/g creatinine in the initial study to 6.9 and 6.8*g/g creatinine in the follow-up study. However, the prevalence of RTD, which was determined by urinary *2-microglobulin exceeding 1 mg/g creatinine and urinary glucose exceeding 150 mg/g creatinine, increased from 18 and 23% in the 1985-86 study to 25 and 32% in the 1996-97 study, and a total of 12 new cases (12%) of RTD were found. Whereas, only one subject (4%) in the reference control areas was identified as RTD. Cd-induced RTD was prevalent, progressive and irreversible for male inhabitants of the Cd-polluted Jinzu River basin, although the environmental exposure to Cd through rice was significantly reduced by soil replacement of polluted paddy fields.
J Epidemiol, 2001 ; 11 : 180-189