In this section we described the structure of the self-administered semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire used in the 5-year follow-up survey of the JPHC study, the computation algorithms, and the area-based mean intakes of nutrients and food groups in the subjects of the validation study. The FFQ consists of five sections: 1) semiquantitative frequency questions for rice and miso (fermented soybean paste)-soup, 2) those for alcoholic beverages, 3) those for vitamin supplements, 4) those for foods and beverages, and 5) questions on dietary and cooking behaviors. From the questions, intakes of nutrients and foods by food groups were computed. Although most of them were computed from the frequency and relative portion size indicated in the replies, together with the fixed portion size, a seasonal coefficient was added in the computation of vegetables and fruits. Only frequency of intake and fixed portion size were used for computation of beverages. Sugar and cream added in coffee and tea were computed from the frequency of coffee and tea intake. The intakes of cooking oil, cooking salt (sodium), and salt in noodle-soup were estimated from the questions of relative preference of oil, salt, and noodle-soup.
Japan Epidemiological Association