2018 Volume 127 Issue 1 Pages 53-72
Because of limitations regarding available statistical data for units of year and enumeration, studies on socio-spatial patterns of Tokyo have not responded sufficiently to the dynamics of the so-called “doughnut phenomenon” period—a combination of urban sprawl and inner city decay—from the late 1960s to the early 1990s. Social maps for 1965 at the cho scale are created using statistics produced separately by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government. These maps are compared to those for 1980, because only the population censuses for 1965 and 1980 enumerate occupation data at this geographical scale. Subsequently, the dynamics of socio-spatial patterns in Tokyo for this period are examined. There were significant changes to names and territories of cho following enactment of the Addressing System Act of 1964. This was a serious problem for creating a social map on the cho scale, which was overcome by allocating either the 1961 cho territory or the current one according to cho name and date of statistics. The results of the analysis demonstrate that, in 1965, white-collar areas were formed as buffers around radial commuting train lines in western Tokyo, and areas between these in outer western Tokyo were not white-collar. Therefore, a star-shaped model, rather than a sector one, is suitable for representing socio-spatial patterns of the inhabitants of Tokyo in 1965. In 1980, the white-collar occupation ratio of these “between” areas rose rapidly, and a sectoral pattern clearly emerged. In eastern Tokyo, almost all areas were blue-collar in 1965, and moderate white-collar areas emerged along radial commuting train lines. The four main reasons for these changes are: 1) housing complex development at the sites of large plants; 2) abolishment of green belt policy; 3) new construction and expansion of radial train lines, especially subway lines; and, 4) expansion of sewage service areas. In western Tokyo, the culvertization of medium and small rivers, around which were former industrial areas, also made an important contribution to transforming blue-collar areas into white-collar areas. These results show the importance of infrastructure development in bringing about socio-spatial changes in Tokyo during this period.