2018 Volume 127 Issue 2 Pages 229-246
Shikotsu volcano is a caldera volcano in southwestern Hokkaido. It is considered that a large-scale eruption started at ca. 60 ka (named as 60 ka Shadai eruption), mainly ejecting scoria fall and scoria flow deposits. The volcano repeated explosive eruptions every several thousand years, and after 10 ky of dormancy, a caldera-forming eruption took place at ca. 46 ka. Trench and boring surveys were carried out in the eastern part of Shikotsu caldera, and stratigraphy and changes in the components of the 60 ka Shadai eruption were reexamined. There are three types of juvenile materials in 60 ka eruption deposits: dacitic pumice, olivine-bearing andesitic scoria, and intermediate banded/gray pumice. As a result, tephra layers of the eruption are mainly classified into three units: Units A to C in ascending order. Soils and volcanic ash soils were not discovered among these layers, so these must derive from a single eruption sequence. Unit A consists of pumice fall deposits and ash fall deposits; Unit B of scoria fall deposits; and Unit C comprises a pyroclastic flow deposit and a following pyroclastic fall deposit. Each eruptive unit is subdivided into A1-A3, B1-B5 and C1-C2. Based on these eruptive units, the sequence of the 60 ka Shadai eruption is constructed as follows: Phase 1 was a pumiceous plinian eruption (A1, A2), and eruption rate abruptly decreased in A3. Phase 2 was a scoriaceous plinian eruption (B1-B5). Eruption rate was unstable in early Phase 2 (B1-B4); however, it gradually increased in late Phase 2 (intermittent eruption had repeated in B5). Consequently, a pyroclastic flow eruption occurred in Phase 3 (C1), followed by a plinian eruption (C2). Andesitic and mixed magmas were found to begin to erupt from Phase 2, while dacitic magma survived through the 60 ka Shadai eruption. These characteristics are difficult to explain based on the eruption from a zoned magma chamber or from a common eruptive vent. Dacitic and andesitic magmas are suggested to have existed in separated magma chambers, and dacitic magma at least was supplied through an independent vent system.