2021 Volume 130 Issue 3 Pages 379-402
Kozushima is a volcanic island, located in the northern part of the Izu Islands, approximately 170 km SSW of central Tokyo. The volcanism of Kozushima Volcano started at 80-60 ka and formed monogenetic volcanoes. The latest eruption occurred in AD 838, and was associated with the formation of the lava dome and pyroclastic cone of Tenjo-san. In order to contribute to the long-term forecasting of volcanic eruptions on the Izu Islands off Tokyo, the tephrostratigraphy and eruption history of Kozushima Volcano during the last 30,000 years is reconstructed. According to the geological surveys, the widespread Kikai-Akahoya (K-Ah; 7.3 cal ka) and Aira-Tanzawa (AT; 30.0 cal ka) tephras from southern Kyushu, and Niijima-Mukaiyama (Nj-My; AD 886), Niijima-Shikinejima (Nj-Sk; 8 cal ka) and Niijima-Miyatsukayama (Nj-Mt; 12.8 cal ka) tephras from the Niijima Volcano 20 km NNE of Kozushima are recognized. Tephras that also erupted from Kozushima Volcano are Kozushima-Tenjosan (Kz-Tj; AD 838), Kozushima-Ananoyama (Kz-An; 7-9 c), Kozushima-Chichibuyama-A′ (Kz-CbA′; 14-12.8 cal ka), Kozushima-Chichibuyama-A (Kz-CbA; 30-22 cal ka), and Kozushima-Chichibuyama-B (Kz-CbB; ca. 30 ka). Kz-An is formed by the activity of the northern volcanic chains (Kobe-yama–Anano-yama–Hanatate) just before the Tenjo-san eruption. Kz-CbA′ is distributed in southern Kozushima. Source vent and distribution of Kz-CbA′ have not yet been identified. The eruption history of Kozushima volcano over the last 30,000 years is as follows. At ca. 30 ka, Kz-CbB erupted in the central Kozushima, and the Nachi-san dome and Takodo-yama dome formed. At 30-22 ka, the Kz-CbA eruption in the southern Kozushima and the formation of the southern volcanic chain occurred. After the eruption of Kz-CbA′, the formation of the northern volcanic chain was followed by the eruption of Tenjo-san volcano. In addition, the eruption rate of Kozushima volcano is estimated during the last 30,000 years to be approximately 0.06 km3/1000 y in DRE.