1995 年 104 巻 1 号 p. 45-68
A multi-disciplinary synthesis was made on the tectonics and seismotectonics in the northwestern Sagami Bay and adjacent areas, where the plate boundary between the Izu-Bonin and Northeast Japan arcs passes and historical M7-8 inter-and intraplate earthquakes frequentlyhave occurred.
In a convergent boundary between plates, a displacement between plates is usually accommodatedalong a broad belt of active imbricated thrusts and folds, which develop in a wedge ofan overriding plate. In such a situation, we can easily identify two kinds of plate boundaries: a deformation front and a subduction entrance. The deformation front is a line connecting thethrusts or folds nearest to a trench/trough axis. The subduction entrance is a line connecting theedges of trench/trough filling coarse deposits, which cover a surface of a subducting plate. In Sagami Bay, the deformation front in the overriding Northeast Japan arc is estimated to belocated along the northern and eastern edges of the Sagami Basin, while the subductionentrance of the subducting Izu-Bonin arc is estimated to be located along the southern edge of the Basin.
Many geomorphological, geological, geophysical observations need and support the existenceof the West Sagami Bay Fracture (WSBF), an intraplate propagating fracture between the Izu-Bonin outer and inner arcs, proposed by Ishibashi (1988), whereas these observations require slightmodification of the estimated geometry around the WSBF. Frequent dike intrusions in theHigashi Izu monogenetic volcano field cause spreading of the upper crust and probably move the Manazuru “microplate”(MNZ) to the NNE direction against the Izu block. The Tanna-Hirayama tectonic line is proposed as a transform fault, which accomodates the relativemovement between the MNZ and the Izu block. In the MNZ hypothesis, the Kozu-Matsuda fault, located to the northeast of the Izu Peninsula, is interpreted as a deformation front between theoverriding Northeast Japan arc and the MNZ, which is buoyantly subducting beneath the Oiso Hilland Tanzawa Mountains. The proposed new geometry around the WSBF and the hypothesis of the MNZ can explain (1) the crustal structure and tectonic features around the Kozu-Matsudafault, (2) tectonic implication of the “Oiso-type” earthquakes, which are expected to displacethe Kozu-Matsuda fault periodically, and (3) the rapid upheaval of the Tanzawa Mountains since 1Ma.