地学雑誌
Online ISSN : 1884-0884
Print ISSN : 0022-135X
河成地形面の比高分布からみた地殻変動
吉山 昭柳田 誠
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1995 年 104 巻 6 号 p. 809-826

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In this paper the new methodology for quantitative estimation of uplift rates at inland region was discussed using fluvial terrace surfaces and deposit bases. Previous studies have revealed that river profiles regularly changed according to the cyclic fluctuation of climate and sealevel ; therefore, in the interglacial ages (the marine isotope stage 5e and the present) similar profiles with large concavity formed, and in the glacial ages (stage 6 and 2) linear profiles appeared on the contrary. In upper reaches of rivers, stage 5e valley bottoms were filled with the deposit accumulated in the subsequent glacial stages. Based on these observations, the value of relative height between the stage 5e burned valley bottom and the present river floor (BV value) is considered to indicate uplift during those stages (120-130 ky). Similarly, the value of relative height between the stage 6 terrace and the stage 2 terrace (TT value) can be used as an indicator of uplift during the period between those two stages.
The BV values and TT values distributed along Japanese major rivers were reviewed on the basis of previous studies on terrace development and tephro-chronology. In middle reaches of most of rivers, the TT and BV values at the same sites are concordant to each other. The BV values remarkably decrease upstream in spite of no reduction of the TT values in the upper reaches or branches. This implies that present river profiles have not completely been in equilibrium and are now degrading in the upper streams and branches. As an indicator of long-term uplift rate, the TT values have the advantage of applicability to upper reaches and availability of field data in comparison to the BV value. However, it is impossible to apply these methods in the upper reaches or branches where fluvial terraces are not well developed.
Up until now, the uplift rates in mountainous region were presumed from the outlined altitude of mountains or the amount of eroded material trapped in reservoirs, but have not been examined by direct data. The uplift rates obtained by using TT values and BV values are 0.10.8 mm/year in large number of sites, which are not located in very high mountainous area. Large uplift rates more than 1 mm/year were estimated from TT values at the Kurobe river basin, in the northern part of Chubu mountainous region.

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