We have prepared a preliminary active fault map of Sakhalin, Russia, based on an interpretation of aerial photographs and satellite images. Major active structures include 110-km-long active faults along the western margin of the Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Lowland in southern Sakhalin and 120-km-long active faults along the western margin of the Poronaysk Lowland in central Sakhalin. These active faults are parallel to but are located as far as 10 km east of the Tym-Poronaysk fault. Geomorphic surfaces on the upthrown side of the fault are tilting westward, therefore, the faults are considered to be west-dipping low-angle reverse faults. The vertical component of slip rates of these faults are >0.3 mm/yr in southern Sakhalin and 1.0-1.5 mm/yr in central Sakhalin. The net-slip rates could be much greater because the faults are low-angle reverse faults. If these faults rupture along their entire length during individual earthquakes, the earthquakes could be as great as M7.6-7.7. In northern Sakhalin, we have identified a series of right-lateral strike-slip faults, including the 1995 Neftegorsk earthquake fault. The slip rates for these faults are estimated at 4 mm/yr. The right-lateral shear in northern Sakhalin and east-west compression in central and southern Sakhalin may reflect relative plate motion in far-east Asian region.