地学雑誌
Online ISSN : 1884-0884
Print ISSN : 0022-135X
ISSN-L : 0022-135X
中国本土における氷期と氷河問題 (2)
現代中国地理学界の論題, その1
保柳 睦美
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ジャーナル フリー

1966 年 75 巻 4 号 p. 210-225

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4) Fig. 5 is the extent of the Pleistocene and the present glaciation in China compiled by a Chinese geologist, which suggests general acceptance among Chinese geologists and geographers of the wide spread Pleistocene glaciation throughout the land, particularly in the central and the eastern part of China; the southern border of the past glaciation reached as far as the present subtropical China.
Such a remarkable prevalence of glaciation was first remarked by Lee Szu-kuang in 1930's, when he claimed evidences of glaciation in the lower Yangtze valley, particularly around the hill of Lush an near the Poyang Lake in Kiangsi. His theory was widely disputed but was not generally approved by European scientists. However, it has had a great influence upon the thinking of Chinese scholars and the result is, after the war, a rapid increase in the number of Chinese geologists and geographers in favor of his theory and approval of evidences of glaciation over a wide area.
In the discussion of the Lushan glaciation, Lee suggested three successive glaciations in Pleistocene; the Poyang, the Taku and the Lushan. In the present research of the Pleistocene Epoch in China some geologists added the last glaciation, the Tali; and the Poyang, the Taku, the Lushan and the Tali seems to be an authorized succession of glaciations in the central and the eastern part of China Mainland. The succession and the extent of the past glaciation, however, are not free from criticism even today among Chinese scientists.
5) Articles discussing glaciations in the central and the eastern part of China have been generally appeared in the scientific magazines and reports of geology, rather than of geography. Recently a special publication dealing with the problem was issued (1964), compiled by the Quaternary Era Research Committee in China, containing six articles approving remnants of glaciations in various parts of China. Among them is Lee's article claiming evidences of glaciation in the Western Hills. The Western Hills, Peking's nearest heights, form the western border of the Peking plain, which slopes gently towards the southeast.
Lee's theory is based on the observations of topography and deposits which cannot be explained by other than glaciation, such as linearly arranged basin-like depressions cut into the floor rock of a valley, striated and polished surface produced on the bottom rock, uneven rock surface underlying the Peking plain (Fig. 7), glaciation remnants such as striated boulders, clay-and-boulder deposits which cover deeply the Peking plain. He attributed the la st one to the frequent floods occurred near the end of a glacial period. However, the exact period in Pleistocene during which glaciers flowed down to the foot of the Western Hills is not established.
His discussion goes as far back as the climatic condition under which Peking Man lived. The analysis of pollen, plant and animal remains of the clay-and-boulder deposit; in the Choukoutien Cave by Chinese geologists revealed that the climate of Peking Man's period was rather warm or hot, while the upper and the lower layers of deposits were formed under cold climate. This exemplifies, according to Lee, the existence of at least one interglacial period and two glacial ones.
Other articles contained in the special publication are dealing with glaciations of the Lungmen-Shan in Szechuan, the Great Khingan Mountains, the Tapieh-Shan, the Eastern Tsinling-Shan and the Taihan-Shan. However, a careful analysis and comparison of the evidences and conclusions of these articles reveal some inconsistencies from one another as to the occurrence of glacial periods, the altitude and the extent of glaciations (Table. 2), which suggest the glacial problems in the Pleistocene of China are not yet settled conclusively.

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