2006 年 100 巻 p. 451-464
Phylogenetic analyses of plastid trnLUAA intron and nuclear ribosomal ITS1 and ITS2 sequences clearly separate the Southern Hemisphere Dicranoloma from the mainly Northern Hemisphere Dicranum. Both genera form monophyletic groups together with closely related satellite genera, Dicranoloma with Braunfelsia, and Dicranum with Orthodicranum/Paraleucobryum. Within Dicranoloma, the widespread species D. billarderi and D. robustum represent a closely related species pair in the molecular trees that is separated from clades of exclusively South American (D. capillare, D. chilense) and Australasian (D. dicarpum, D. diaphanoneuron, D. menziesii, D. plurisetum) species. Intraspecific sequence variation occurs in both D. billarderi and D. robustum, especially in the most variable ITS1. The geographic distribution of genotypes indicates recent or ongoing long-range dispersal of diaspores, which is consistent with the occurrence of both species on sub-Antarctic islands and their high capacity of spore dispersal. Patterns of genetic divergence in D. billarderi and D. robustum are markedly different from those observed in previously analyzed palaeoaustral bryophyte taxa, which are either scarcely differentiated in the geographically separated areas or show a clear molecular separation of populations or taxa in the respective regions.