The traditional habits of eating the fermented and preserved foods, shiokara and gyosyou, and their regional characteristics were investigated by studying Nihon-no-Shokuseikatsu-Zenshu which records the traditional eating habits of each prefecture in Japan. One hundred and fourteen kinds of shiokara and gyosyou are recorded in Nihon-no-Shokuseikatsu-Zenshu throughout the entire country. However, most of these records are for fishing villages and nearby farming villages in the Sea of Japan coastal areas and the Pacific coastal areas. The fish most commonly used to make shiokara and gyosyou are cuttlefish, sweetfish, sardines, bonito, mackerel and their internal organs. shiokara and gyosyou are grouped into three types : type A, in which the fish is mixed in fermented liquid, account for 70%; type B, a pureed form, account for 25%; and type C, a liquid form, account for 5%. Types A and B are eaten as side dishes with sake and rice. The fish of type A are also used as cooking ingredients for boiled, grilled and dressed food, and the fermented liquid of type A and types B and C are used as condiments. shiokara and gyosyou are very common foods; in fishing villages, this preservation method efficiently uses very large catches of fish, and in the Tohoku and Hokuriku areas, the fish are preserved to insure a food supply throughout the winter.