A hypothetical model of the relationship between social skills, alexithymia, adjustment, and burnout in Japanese university athletes (N=254; 100 men and 154 women; mean age=19.85, SD=1.06) was developed and the effect of individual burnout levels was examined. Participants completed questionnaires including the Sports Social Skills Scale, Sports Alexithymia Scale, Adjustment Scale for College Athletes, and Burnout Scale for University Athletes. Results of path analysis indicated satisfactory fit indices of the hypothetical model. Moreover, social skills of athletes were indirectly associated with burnout through alexithymia and adjustment. Furthermore, multi-group structural equation analyses indicated that differences in burnout were predicted by the hypothetical model. These results suggest that social skills interventions for athletes might help prevent burnout by reducing individual problems and improving interpersonal relationships. Also, affective mechanisms of social skills in burnout suggested differences based on the personal burnout level. It is suggested that further clinical practice with athletes experiencing burnout is required to validate the results of this study, as well as to select optimal intervention techniques for each athlete.