2020 年 58 巻 292 号 p. 318-333
In 1859, some American Protestant denominations started medical missions in Japan. The medical missionaries tried to eliminate the Japanese people’s prejudice against Christianity by offering medical care and education to the local communities. In the 1870s, several young medical students and ambitious medical practitioners asked the American medical missionaries for instruction about Western medicine. The current scholarship has overlooked the work of these American medical missionaries and has narrowed its focus to the German physicians who worked at the University of Tokyo and influenced the Japanese physicians with German medicine. This paper aims to demonstrate how the American medical missionaries were appreciated in early Meiji Osaka. First, I outline the background of the American Protestant missions, which dispatched many medical missionaries in the 1870s. Second, I describe the activities of the American medical missionaries in Osaka from the 1870s until the mid- 1880s, focusing on Arthur H. Adams and Wallace Taylor from the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions and on Henry Laning from the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America. Finally, I examine how these medical missionaries were engaged in the medical education of both medical students and physicians.