1995 Volume 74 Issue 10 Pages 874-881
Reviewed in this paper are the methodologies used for emissions inventory preparation and the environmental impact evaluation of emissions from industrial production and/or technologies utilization. The methodologies utilized for emissions inventories can be categorized into two approaches: the bottom-up approach, and the analytical approach using input-output tables. Currently, the environmental impacts are evaluated by the classification, such as “Greenhouse effect” and “Ozone layer depletion”, and aggregation method, whose value are calculated by the product of the emissions volume/mass and the weighting factors. The weighting factors are presently estimated based on scientific knowledge as far as possible. In order to evaluate environmental impacts on the different classifications in the same unit, the method of the calculation of environmental costs has been the focus of attention recently. Environmental costs are the parts of the externality, which is not reflected on the present market prices, of the industrial products and/or technologies. In the future, we should consider not only environmental impacts caused by the emissions but also other externality such as “Resource depletion” and “Land use”.