The uniqueness of Inner Mongolia Hulun Lake Nature Reserve is its large area of grassland and the presence of indigenous people. There have been conflicts between the nature reserve policy and the residents within the Nature Reserve; and two solutions have been implemented: 1) “Ecological Migration” policy which forces residents within the Nature Reserve to move outside the reserve area; and 2) “Joint Conservation Agreement” which involves residents to participate in the management of the Nature Reserve. In this study, the current situation of “Ecological Migration” and that of “Joint Conservation Agreement” have been clarified. In addition, effects of the nature Conservation policy led by the Nature Reserve residents and the evaluation of the ecosystem and scenery have been captured. The research involved the following activities: interviews with residents and workers (n=44), bibliographical research at a municipal government library, a questionnaire survey on Joint Conservation Agreement (n=496), another survey on Ecological migration (n=109).