For making appropriate plans for urban gardening, both planners’ and users’ viewpoints should be taken into consideration. This study investigates the change of urban gardening in Japan focusing on the viewpoints of the abovementioned stakeholders through literature reviews and discusses the findings in light of the current urban gardening situation. As a result, three periods of change were elucidated. Firstly, since the 1920s, planners accepted the concept of European allotment gardens and established allotment gardens on agricultural lands or in parks. However, they did not consider users’ demands and consequently allotment gardens did not gain in popularity. Secondly, since the 1960s, allotment gardens were spontaneously established on agricultural lands by users. Planners supported this movement in the beginning, but gradually put more emphasis on interests of owners of agricultural lands with the decline of agriculture as industry. Therefore, the laws for allotment gardens were established in order to primarily utilize agricultural lands efficiently instead of considering the demands of the actual users. Thirdly, since the 2000s, various lands started to be used for various garden activities based on users’ demands, which cannot be met in the existing framework of laws. Thus, it can be said that the diversity of the current urban gardening in Japan is a result of the gap between planners’ and users’ viewpoints.