Cicadas and their songs are deeply rooted in the Japanese culture. In this study, we aimed to investigate the distribution of cicadas in suburban areas, and to analyze the factors influencing the distribution of the evening cicada Tanna japonensis (also called higurashi). We used the quadrat method to count the cast-off skins of cicadas in 59 forests. In addition, vegetation structure and soil conditions were recorded in the field and the normalized difference vegetation index was obtained from satellite images (defined as 100–1000-m buffer zones around the quadrat central point). The relationship between the number of cast-off skins of T. japonensis and the environmental factors was analyzed using generalized linear models (GLM). The largest number of cast-off skins found was from Graptopsaltria nigrofuscata followed, in descending order, by those from T. japonensis, Platypleura kaempferi, Meimuna opalifera, and Hyalessa maculaticollis. In planted forests, the dominant species was G. nigrofuscata, whereas in evergreen and coniferous forests the dominant species was T. japonensis. GLM analysis revealed that the distribution of T. japonensis was affected by the percentage of evergreen and coniferous cover, due to differences in canopy layer, soil hardness, and patch size of the forest. For the conservation of T. japonensis, it is therefore important to take into account vegetation type and soil conditions.