This study focuses on the spatial features of Old Summer Palace in China from the perspective of position relationship between hill-water and architecture. The 40 gardens in Old Summer Palace were divided into 4 groups according to the relationship with the surrounding, sight orientation and the location of hill and water. In Group A, these gardens have several space types and were surrounded by hills and waters which make the garden space separated from surrounding. These gardens in Group B form closed garden space by architectural which were closed to environment rather than the construction of hill and water. These gardens in Group C have opening garden space and multi-directional sight by few hills surrounded and opening architectural composition. The gardens of Group D were surrounded by a little hills and sight orientation which make them look opening appropriately. Overall, not only the composition of architecture, but also the construction of hill and water in Old Summer Palace were affected by the traditional geomancy culture, and the innovative techniques were also applied in this garden especially in the residence area.