2018 Volume 27 Issue 2 Pages 139-147
Hormone replacement therapy（HRT）is an effective tool for improving the quality of life of postmenopausal women. In addition to the treatment of well-known symptoms and diseases, such as climacteric disorders, dyslipidemia and osteoporosis, HRT alleviates almost all complaints after menopause. For many years, the risk of breast cancer in women receiving HRT was a concern. Nowadays, however, the international consensus is that the risk of breast cancer attributable to HRT is rare. HRT is known to have a tendency to increase breast density, affecting mammography examinations. Depending on the HRT regimen, increased rates of false-positive findings and recalls have been observed. However, the direct effect of an HRT-induced increase in breast density on the risk of breast cancer remains a topic of discussion. Similar to the situation for average-risk women, the recommendations for breast screening in women receiving HRT differ worldwide. Various discussions of this issue have been held, including topics such as modality and interval. According to the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology and the Japan Society for Menopause and Women’s Health 2017 guidelines for hormone replacement therapy, a mammography or ultrasonography examination should be performed before the prescription of HRT and each year thereafter.