1980 年 7 巻 3-4 号 p. 161-196
Numerous papers have been published about the microdefects in silicon crystals for these fifteen years. The important results among them are historically reviewed in this paper. First of all, the discovery and the various properties of the microdefects are introduced. Secondly, the transformation of the microdefects to the other types of the defects by heat treatment and the correlation of the microdefects with the other defects generated by device processes are explained. Thirdly, the nature and the origin of the microdefects are separately outlined of the two cases, namely FZ and CZ. In the first half of this section, the case of FZ is described, which contains the theory of the vacancy cluster, the observation of the microdefects by TEM, the interstitial silicon atoms and so on. In the last half of this section, the case of CZ is described, which contains the behaviour of oxygen atoms, the nucleation theory, the current topics and so on. Finally, the influence of the microdefects to device characteristics and the control methods of the microdefects, including both extrinsic gettering and intrinsic gettering, to improve device characteristics are generally reviewed.