1983 年 31 巻 1 号 p. 18-27
The purpose of this study is to examine the validity of causal attribution model about academic achievement of elementary scool children. This model assumes the causal processes as follows: (1) attributional style (i. e. individual differences of causal attribution made in achievement-related situations) influences degree of perceived control each child has in such situations; (2) the degree of perceived control influences magnitude of achievement-related behaviors he/she takes (to be called behavior tendency); (3) the behavior tendency contributs to his/her level of achievement in school work.
As a first research, a questionaire designed to measure attributional style was developed and administered to 245 elementary school pupils in fourth to sixth grade. By factor analysis eight factors were found, and the eight scales of these causal factors were set as a result. These scales were named as follows: “positive-effort (i. e. attribution to effort in positive situations (success))”,“negativeeffort (i. e. attribution to effort in negative situations (failure))”,“positive-ability”,“negative-ability”,“positive-mood,”“negative-mood”,“positive, negativetask (i. e. attribution to task in both positive and negative situations)”, and “positive, negative-chance”. As a second research, the survey utilizing the questionaire prepared in the first research and the new perceived control scale was administered to another 267 elementary school pupils in fourth to sixth grade. According to the model, regression analysis of causal paths was applied to the data obtaned in this survey and the pupils' behavior and academic records retained in the school.
The validity of the model was mainly confirmed. It was found that among the scales of causal attribution, positive-effort, positive-ability and negativeability have explanatory power of accademic achievement. It is to be noted that sex differences about the causal paths were found. They were examined in terms of the differences of achievement goals held by boys and girls.