1988 年 36 巻 4 号 p. 297-306
In order to solve a problem in science or mathematics, it is generally thought necessary to remember the relevant rules and apply them to the problem correctly. Also, understanding the meaning of the problem situation is indispensable, and to do so a reasoning schema is used. Junior high school students solved problems of photosynthesis with different kinds of explanations. The explanations of the meaning of the problem situation were believed to improve students' problem-solving, and the result was interpreted as an evidence of the existence of the reasoning schema. Moreover it was shown that the reasoning shema was independent of the specific domains, and called up by recognizing what scene the problem was concerned with: for example, a making something from something scene. The implications of the above findings were discussed.