日本衛生学雑誌
Online ISSN : 1882-6482
Print ISSN : 0021-5082
ミニ特集 カドミウム研究の現状と今後の展望―疫学研究から分子機構まで
日本人のカドミウム曝露の現状
―特に米中カドミウム濃度の基準値及び農家の自家産米摂取による曝露とその近位尿細管機能への影響―
堀口 兵剛
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ジャーナル フリー

2012 年 67 巻 4 号 p. 447-454

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Because the staple food in Japan is rice, which absorbs cadmium (Cd) from the soil efficiently, rice is the main source of exposure to Cd in the Japanese population. In addition, there have been many Cd-contaminated farming areas in Japan. Therefore, a safety standard for the Cd concentration in rice was set as 0.4 ppm by the Japanese government. This safety standard has been followed for decades without any appropriate scientific or legal basis. However, recent epidemiological studies of female Japanese farmers exposed to Cd through self-grown rice, that is, a series of Japanese Multi-centered Environmental Toxicant Study (JMETS), showed evidence that the safety standard is appropriate. Therefore, general Japanese consumers are unlikely exposed to Cd excessively with the application of this safety standard, considering the trend of decreasing amount of rice consumed among the Japanese population. On the other hand, Japanese farmers were found to be at risk of Cd exposure through the consumption of self-grown rice with a high Cd concentration. Actually, the JMETS showed that female farmers at 70 years of age or older had a decreased proximal renal tubular function due to the high renal accumulation of Cd. On the basis of these findings, “medical examinations for Cd exposure” have recently been implemented for farmers residing in Cd-polluted areas in northern Japan. Because it has been estimated that such Cd-polluted areas are actually larger, it is necessary to implement medical examinations of more farmers there, particularly the elderly.

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© 2012 日本衛生学会
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