Objectives: This study aims to develop a scale of “women-doctor-friendly working conditions in a hospital setting”. Methods: A task team consisting of relevant people including a medical doctor and a hospital personnel identified 36 items related to women-doctor-friendly working conditions. From December in 2012 to January in 2013, we sent a self-administered questionnaire to 807 full-time employees including faculty members and medical doctors who worked for a university-affiliated hospital. We asked them to score the extent to which they think it is necessary for women doctors to balance between work and gender role responsibilities on the basis of the Likert scale. We carried out a factor analysis and computed Cronbach’s alpha to develop a scale and investigated its construct validity and reliability. Results: Of the 807 employees, 291 returned the questionnaires (response rate, 36.1%). The item-total correlation (between an individual item score and the total score) coefficient was in the range from 0.44 to 0.68. In factor analysis, we deleted six items, and five factors were extracted on the basis of the least likelihood method with the oblique Promax rotation. The factors were termed “gender equality action in an organization”, “the compliance of care leave in both sexes and parental leave in men”, “balance between life events and work”, “childcare support at the workplace”, and “flexible employment status”. The Cronbach’s alpha values of all the factors and the total items were 0.82–0.89 and 0.93, respectively, suggesting that the scale we developed has high reliability. Conclusions: The result indicated that the scale of women-doctor-friendly working conditions consisting of five factors with 30 items is highly validated and reliable.