1953 Volume 5 Issue 5 Pages 323-341,402
Various aspects and problems of Shinden(reclaimed rice-field) on delta have been so far investigated, but materials which refer to its geographical distribution are hardly to be found. Here in this report, I am to make a comparative study on the distribution of the settlemets of Shinden on the delta of the Fuji river and that of the Oi river (both in Shizuoka Pref.).
(1) There are two ways in which Shinden is formed and developed on the delta, namely, the intussusception growth and the apposition growth. The one means that Shinden is formed and covers the delta by way of thrusting itself in already established villages, and by the other is meant that Shinden is added at the circumference of old settlement. In other words, the former can be called the area-expanding growth which makes Shinden spread over the delta, and the latter the thickening growth which makes the settlement on delta thicker. As the typical examples of these two ways of development of Shinden on delta, are taken the reclaimed rice-fields on the delta of the Fuji river (the apposition growth) and that of the Oi river (the intussusception growth).
(2) Irrespective of the above-mentioned area-expanding growth or the thickening growth, Shinden is divided into another two kinds, the centrifugal growth and the centripetal growth, according to the direction of its development. Shinden on the delta of the Fuji river belongs to the former. There, the original rice-field being in the center of delta, the new rice-field developed thence toward the outer side-namely, the centrifugal growth. On the contrary, the one on the delta of the Oi river was centripetally formed. developing, from the circumference toward the surface of delta.
(3) If developed by the intussusception growth, the reclimed rice-field is distributed all over the surface of delta. A good example is found in the one on the delta of the Oi river, which can be called an equifacial settlement. The equifacial settlement sometimes has a naturally formed nucleus, and there are two cases of forming the nucleus. In one case, the nucleus being vague, people can only surmise the nuclear part, and in the other case, the nucleus being distinct, the reclaimed rice-field is spreading around it. I call the nucleus of the latter a hilum of Shinden on delta. Such a hilum is found just in the center of delta of the Oi river, that is, Kamishinden in Aikawavillage. Besides the case the hilum coincides with the center of delta as afore-mentioned, there may be another case the hilum keeps at a distance from the center of delta.
(4) The delta is edged by the reclamed rice-field if the latter developed by the thickening growth; and the bordered distribution or ringed distribution of the reclaimed ricefield on delta comes to be observed. The one on the delta of the Fuji river is its good example, which shows distinctly the distribution of pericycle settlement. When the delta is not edged wholly, the half bordered distribution is observed as we see on the deltas of the Ota river (Hiroshima Pref.) and the Hii river (Shimane Pref.). If Shinden is scanty in the center of delta while it is distributed only around it, a central gap is made in the region of reclaimed rice-field, of which good example is given by the distribution of Shinden on the delta of the Fuji river.