This study examines inter-urban linkages in the international urban system between Korea and Japan through an analysis of foreign market enterprise entry. The data used in the study were obtained from various company directories and related publications in Korea and Japan.
The results can be summarized as follows:
1. The overall spatial pattern of liaison offices, branches and subsidiaries suggests that, first, the international urban system between Korea and Japan has taken shape around a nucleus of enterprises based in Seoul, Tokyo and Osaka; second, that this can be classified into two spatial structures, according to the Murayama model-one which is an inter-metropolitan network in which strong linkages between Tokyo and Seoul are clearly formed; and the other which is a vertical structure in which many non-metropolitan cities are under the control of Tokyo, Osaka and Seoul. Hence, the development of such spatial structures has led to the diversification of urban functions in the capital cities of Korea and Japan.
2. Log-linear model analysis reveals that, first, the spatial structure of liaison offices, branches and subsidiaries has strong relations with three enterprise attributes-industrial sector, foreign market entry form, and size of firm; and, second, Seoul-and Tokyo-based firms have many liaison offices, branches and subsidiary networks in various industrial sectors, foreign market entry forms, and sizes of firm. We may conclude that the areal differentiation from these three enterprise attributes has led to various functional differentiations between Korea and Japan as well as between metropolitan and non-metropolitan cities, and is the primary factor underlying the formation of a hierarchy of cities and regions.