Armored searobins in the Indo-West Pacific genus Paraheminodus Kamohara, 1958 (Peristediidae), characterized by upper jaw teeth, the lateral head margin smooth, posterior pairs of lower lateral row bony plates separated from each other, and unbranched barbels on the lower jaw (except for posteriormost lip and chin barbels), include four species: Paraheminodus laticephalus (Kamohara, 1952), P. murrayi (Günther, 1880), P. kamoharai Kawai, Imamura and Nakaya, 2004 (known only from a single record from the Sulu Sea, Philippines) and P. longirostralis Kawai, Nakaya and Séret, 2008. To date, only P. laticephalus and P. murrayi have been recorded from Japan. However, a single specimen of P. kamoharai (114.2 mm in standard length) collected from Kochi, Japan, was found in the collection of Kyoto University, Japan, being the second record of the species and first from Japanese waters. Paraheminodus kamoharai is re-diagnosed, having 5+1+17– 20=23–26 gill rakers, rostral projection length 42.5–47.0% of head length, upper jaw length 40.5–42.3% of head length, lower jaw length 36.5–37.7% of head length, pectoral fin length 57.5–66.4% of head length, preopercular spine length 34.9–40.9% of head length, distance from anus to caudal fin 46.9–49.3% of standard length, and both forwardly and backwardly directed spines on the posterior upper lateral row bony plates. The new Japanese standard name “Kamohara-kihoubou” is proposed for the species.