With rapid advances being made in radiotherapy treatment, three-dimensional (3D) dose measurement techniques of great precision are required more than ever before. It is expected that 3D polymer gel dosimeters will satisfy clinical needs for an effective detector that can measure the complex 3D dose distributions. Polymer gel dosimeters are devices that utilize the radiation-induced polymerization reactions of vinyl monomers in a gel to store information about radiation dose. The 3D absorbed dose distribution can be deduced from the resulting polymer distribution using several imaging modalities, such as MRI, X-ray and optical CTs. In this article, the fundamental characteristics of polymer gel dosimeter are reviewed and some challenging keys are also suggested for the widely spread in clinical use.