Benign cementoblastoma (BC) is considered as an odontogenic tumor of mesenchymal origin characterized by proliferation of cellular cementum, and is also called “true cementoma” by many workers. BC has been considered to be a rare odontogenic tumor, but the number of report on BC is now increasing, and 64 tumors were reported in Japan since 1953. Clinically, BC develops frequently in the lower molar region of comparatively younger generation and usually presents a distinct lesion with characteristic radiographic and pathohistologic appearances. Generally, surgical prognosis of BC is well, though 5 cases with postoperative recurrence have been documented in Japan. The present paper reports a case of BC with postoperative recurrence. The patient was a 20-year-old man who had a thum's tip-sized tumor in his lower left premolar region of the mandible. Clinical and radiographic examination revealed a well circumscribed lesion in the mandible. This tumor was pathologically diagnosed as BC. Twenty four months later, recurrent BC was found. In addition to the above mentioned case, BC cases with or without recurrence were reviewed in the Japanese literatures concerned.