The effect of resistance training for five months was examined. Middle-aged and elderly women without an exercise habit were divided into a resistance training group (RT group), an aerobic training group (AE group), and a control group (CNT group). A questionnaire survey examined QOL, and physical characteristics, bone mineral density and physical fitness were measured before and after the intervention period. A significant improvement in the RT group was seen in regard to subjective health degree, everyday feeling, human relation and life satisfaction degree. The subjective health degree increased significantly in the AE group, while no change was seen in the CNT group in regard to all iteme. Knee extension strength, knee flexion strength, plantar flexion strength, and stepping improved significantly in the RT group. It was suggested that resistance training that could be carried out easily to allow the physical fitness of middle-aged and elderly women improve prartially, and that it an available method of improving psychological items such as subjective health and degree of life satisfaction.