1978 Volume 22 Issue 6 Pages 363-373
The purpose of this investigation was to examine force, velocity, and power of rowing motion and to calculate the energy equation applicable to such movement. Higher performance and better technique in rowing may be interpreted in terms of how to generate larger energy and minimize the energy expenditure during the rowing motion. Force, velocity, and power of rowing motion were recorded by the inertia wheel and power meter devised by the present author, as the subject pulled wire connected to an inertia wheel in simulated rowing motion. The equivalent masses of inertia wheel were graded into six load levels varying from 8.0kg to 986.3kg. The rowing motion was filmed by 16mm cine camera and the corresponding measures of force, velocity, and power were synchronized to the film. Experimental subjects were eight members of varsity crew and same number of juniorvarsity crew of Tokyo Institute of Technology and were termed as "Boat Man." In addition, eight trained athletes in track and field and basketball who had no experience in rowing formed a control group and were termed as "Non Boat Man." No appreciable difference was observed between the "Boat Man" and "Non Boat Man" in the measures of their physique and static maximum strength. Following results were obtained: 1. Rowing force and power reached maximum when the arm pull is simultaneously combined with the leg kick and the backward swing of the body. 2. The following equation was proposed to express the rowing motion: 1/2 (M+A) V^2 = Ed where: Ed = total generated energy A = coefficient of expended energy 1/2MV^2 = effective energy trasmitted to the boat 3. From the study of various rowing styles, i. e., using only legs or only arms, it was estimated that the total energy (100%) is contributed 37% by the leg kick, 36% by the backward swing of the body, and 27% by the arm pull. 4. There were remarkable differences between "Boat Man" and "Non boat Man" in their energy equations, although their muscular strength were comparable. These equations were: Varsity crew 1/2 (M+75.74)V^2 = 952.91 Junior Varsity crew 1/2 (M+74.76)V^2 = 879.10 "Non Boat Man" 1/2 (M+51.99)V^2 = 614.51 5. In selection of the crew members and determination of their positions, a consideration of the energy equation, especially of the high level and the balance in ED and A values may be recommendable.