1998 Volume 43 Issue 3-4 Pages 137-149
1.Introduction: Well-learned voluntary movements known as daily life activities are usually performed utilizing prediction of oncoming situational changes and timing the control of muscle contraction on that basis, such as opening the mouth in time with movements of the fork or chopsticks when eating, or swinging the bat to hit the ball in a baseball game. In this paper I will briefly review previous investigations about the effects of spatial, temporal and intensity prediction upon human voluntary motor control. 2.Effects of spatial prediction on voluntary movements: Simple RT is shorter than Choice RT because motor centers for the predicted reaction movements can be preactivated. 3.Prediction of the load and muscle strength exertion: EMG-RT of reaction movements is longer when the load is expected to be heavy compared with a light load. 4.Temporal prediction and visual reaction time: RT is shorter when the time of the stimulus is predicted. 5.Prediction and eye movements: The eyes make a large saccade toward the position of the target motion change when its time is predicted. 6.Prediction and feinting: When the subject is feinted by unexpected perturbation of the stimulus regularity, correct motor commands cannot be issued until error motor commands are completely canceled. 7.The time necessary for switching motor commands: At least 50 ms is necessary to switch motor commands for the predicted reaction movements to the correct new one. 8.Effects of temporal prediction on the stretch reflex: Long-latency components of the stretch reflex are modulated according to task requirements when the time of stretch is predictable. 9.Prediction and postural control: Stretch reflexes in calf muscles are purposefully modified during the foreperiod so that the posture suitable for the reaction arm movement specified by the warning signal is maintained.