A study was conducted to investigate the changes in anthropometric factors, physical fitness, and sprint ability and motion during the preparatory and competitive periods in two Japanese female elite sprinters. The measurements were carried out from the preparatory period to the competitive period three times. The main results were as follows : 1) In both athletes, sprint speed decreased after the preparatory period and increased in the competitive period. 2) High-intensity sprint training during the competitive period led to hypertrophy of the psoas major muscle and improvement of anaerobic power of the upper limbs. 3) During the competitive period in both athletes, the knee continued to flex after contacting, and took off while maintaining a minimal angle. These results suggest that the performance of elite sprinters changes through each training period, and is influenced by a combination of anthropometric factors, physical fitness and sprint motion.