2005 Volume 50 Issue 4 Pages 459-466
The purpose of this study was to examine the influences of a physical activity program (physical education class) on male university students employing behavioral change skills for a period of thirteen weeks on their level of physical activity and the self-efficacy of exercise. The study compared the effects of different physical activity programs: (1) an intervention group employing behavioral change skills (self-monitoring and goal setting) and (2) a control group employing no behavioral change skills. Seven hundred and eighty-eight male freshmen from an institute of technology in Japan were selected to serve as subjects for the intervention group (N=411) and the control group (N=377). Both the programs, which consisted of thirteen weekly classes, included (1) a guidance and 4 to 5 lectures in the classroom and (2) sports activities (table tennis, badminton, or soccer) 8 to 9 times. The theme of the lectures in both programs was "the relationship between lifestyle and health in contemporary society". For the intervention group, the program included (1) education about behavioral change skills and (2) out-of-class practical assignments as homework on physical education. The subjects were rated on the basis of two measurements, conducted before and after the physical activity programs: (1) The Physical Activity Assessment Scale (PAAS; Wakui and Suzuki, 1997) to evaluate physical activity patterns, using two PAAS subscales, i.e. Exercise/Sports and Daily Activity. (2) Self-efficacy for exercise scale (Oka, 2003a) to assess self-efficacy for exercise behavior. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a significant group×time interaction only for the Daily Activity subscale, suggesting that the intervention group exhibited enhanced daily physical activity as compared with the control group. It is concluded that physical activity programs employing behavioral change skills (self-monitoring and goal setting) have a positive effect on enhancement of daily physical activity for male university students.