2011 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 325-341
The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing the stages of exercise behavior change and exercise self-efficacy in older adults, and to examine a hypothetical model which composed of health and socio-psychological factors. The stage of exercise behavior change was positioned as a dependent variable and exercise self-efficacy was settled as an intervening variable. Independent variables were consisted of health factors and socio-psychological factors. Health factors were consisted of three variables; walking, health behavior, and cognition of health status. Socio-psychological factors were consisted of three variables; outcome expectations, human support, and enjoyment for exercise and sport in middle-age. A survey was conducted using a questionnaire. Data were collected from a sample of 518 students of senior colleges for the elderly people in Osaka from July to September in 2007. The questionnaires were distributed to students and they were collected after accomplishment by a researcher. Four hundred and twelve data (male=195, female=217) were analyzed in the study, while the return rate was 79.5%. The main findings were as follows: 1) stage of exercise behavior change was directly affected by human support in older adults. Exercise self-efficacy in male sample and health behavior in female sample were significant variables for the stages of exercise behavior change, 2) exercise self-efficacy was significantly influenced by cognition of health status, walking, and enjoyment in middle-age. Human support in female sample was influencing exercise self-efficacy, 3) enjoyment in middle-age was influencing the present human support and cognition of health status in older adults. Outcome expectations and health behavior in male sample and walking in female sample were affected by enjoyment, 4) in male sample, cognition of health status, walking, and enjoyment accounted for 23.9% of the variance in exercise self-efficacy. Exercise self-efficacy and human support accounted for 42.0% of the variance in the stages of exercise behavior change, 5) in female sample, human support, cognition of health status, walking, and enjoyment accounted for 42.5% of the variance in exercise self-efficacy. Human support and health behavior accounted for 23.9% of the variance in the stages of exercise behavior change, 6) enjoyment was influencing the stages of exercise behavior change indirectly mediating human support in older adults, and 7) there were obvious gender differences in the effects on the stages of exercise behavior change and exercise self-efficacy in older adults. The validity of the hypothetical model was approximately verified in male sample.