2014 Volume 59 Issue 2 Pages 591-608
The purpose of this study was to investigate the norm for supporting play by athletes in team sports, which has so far lacked implicitness, having been regarded spontaneity. The investigation involved analysis of the “authority” of Michael Jordan (hereinafter shortened to “MJ”), who has had a reputation as being one of the best athletes in history. Initially we tried to extract a sense of values from MJ himself and references to his reputation. From this, we clarified a standard of value judgments, and then finally produced a suitable universal normative principle common to all athletes. Although there were insufficient data to draw firm conclusions, the sense of values derived by an athlete appeared to be derived from evaluation of “whether one can utilize one's own talents.” It became clear that while this leads to “correct” play, this evaluation standard contributes to the formation of an “independent strong self” that can “exert positive freedom.” On the other hand, it was also concluded that not only did this “positive freedom” control the evaluation standards of athletes, but also functions as the “normative principle” that one should acquire by forming one's own creativity and identity. At the same time, it was suggested that “positive freedom” is the driving force that allows athletes to become “ignorant” through independent and strong self-belief, The present findings indicate that disregarding any mystique or secrecy about the underlying ability in athletes, and transcending the rule of thumb can contribute to execution of play by athletes in team sports, acting as a signpost when confronting any problem that is complicated, erratic or filled with uncertainty.