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Vol. 61 (2016) No. 1 p. 229-243




 The present study was conducted to assess specific methods of teaching the “push off and gliding motion from a wall” for acquisition of posture conversion in the preparation phase. We compared teaching methods that employed a kickboard for developing the ability of posture to conversion autonomously, focusing on posture conversion until both legs reached the wall. We tested the effects of learning from a wide perspective, including gliding distance, biomechanical values, evaluation based on observation by a third party, the completeness of the motion, and subjective evaluation by the swimmer himself.
 The subjects were 18 college students (6 men, 12 women) who majored in sports science and had signed a consent form. We divided them into 2 groups of 9 individuals with the same sex ratio, and with the same ability to achieve a given gliding distance. For one group, the instructor taught the “push off and gliding motion from a wall” to allow the students to acquire posture conversion autonomously (autonomous posture conversion (APC) group), and the other group was taught by the instructor (kickboard assistance (KA) group). We compared the 2 groups before and after the instructor's intervention, and assessed the value of each teaching method from multidimensional aspects, including gliding distance, biomechanical values (joint angle, grounding angle, velocity, time required), observation values (preparation phase, 4 parameters related to partial angle of preparation), and introspection value (4 questions).
 In both groups, two-way ANOVA revealed significant main effects before and after the intervention, including gliding distance, velocity, and time required. In the APC group we also found significant interaction between the time required until both legs reached the wall after leaving the floor and until release after both legs had left the floor. After the intervention, more than 70% of the third party observers judged that the autonomous posture conversion was acquired successfully. By the observation value, the tasks such as “straightening of the upper body” and “kicking from the ball of the thumb” were accomplished. Moreover, in the introspection value, the intervention improved the consciousness of the swimmers in both groups regarding “holding on just before pushing on the wall”.

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