The aim of this study was to clarify the establishment and development process of Dai Nippon Kyudo Kai (DNKK), which existed from the Meiji to the pre-war Showa era, and its organizational forms. The tasks of the study were to elucidate the establishment and developmental process of the DNKK based on the historical characteristics of the organization, which can be divided into 6 periods. The organizational forms were examined based on the articles of incorporation, and the trends of membership and branch distribution were also clarified.
The results were as follows:
1)The DNKK was established as Seinen Kyujutsu Kai under the Toshizane Honda school in 1909, and shortly renamed the Dai Nippon Kyujutsu Kai. When it became an incorporated foundation in 1919, it was renamed the DNKK. The kyudo philosophy of Kako Neya was strongly reflected at the time of its foundation．
2)The DNKK increased its membership by developing its publishing arm, and promoted kyujutsu and kyudo as part of the regular curriculum in the school.
3)Division among DNKK members in 1915 and the death of Toshizane Honda in 1917 led to a schism of Toshizane Hondaʼs pupils, which resulted in diffusion of the Toshizane Honda method among kyudo players.
4)The DNKK was renamed kyudo from kyujutsu when it became an incorporated foundation in 1919. They considered kyujutsu to be a subject within kyudo.
5) The massive promotion of the DNKK was financially supported by kyudo shops.
6)Analysis of the articles of incorporation showed that the kyudo philosophy of Kako Neya was strongly reflected in the policy of the DNKK through a mechanism based on the opinions of the board of councilors.
7) The conflict with Dai Nippon Butoku Kai over kyudoyosoku resulted in further expansion of the DNKK because of the massive promotion program against them, and a medically negative interpretation to kyudoyosoku evident at the Tokyo Provisional First Army Hospital.
8)Kako Neya decided to step down in 1943, and the activity of the DNKK was substantially terminated in 1944 due to the influence of war.
9)The cumulative total DNKK membership was 22,769 between June 1912 and October 1943. The membership trend was affected by various external factors.
10)A total of 426 branches were established domestically and internationally. The trend of branch establishment was similar to that of membership, and 75% of branches were located in Eastern Japan. The DNKK aggressively promoted overseas expansion.