Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Research for classes of Philosophy of Physical Education and Sports to encourage “critical thinking”:
from a specific example (giving a batter an intentional walk5 consecutive times)
Hiraku MoritaAi AramakiYoji UekiKoyo Fukasawa
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2019 Volume 64 Issue 1 Pages 303-313


 The purpose of this research is to consider ways to encourage critical thinking in Philosophy of Physical Education and Sports classes. Introductory classes for students specializing in sports education were observed. Students reviewed a specific example in which a batter was given an intentional walk five consecutive times and they aimed to consider the case critically.
 Right after watching the case on screen, students noted whether they agreed with such a practice or not. Then, 3 points were explained and students noted their opinion again.
 The 3 points were;
 (1) position of activities of sports clubs
 (2) regarding it as a competitive sport
 (3) regarding it as part of education (Physical Education)
 In 4 years, 8 classes were held and 1,020 students participated in them. 118 of them (11.5%) changed their opinion after listening to the explanation. It must prove that those students were able to analyse even their own initial judgement critically and perceive it differently.
 Furthermore, the following became clear from comments written after the classes:
 By watching and using a specific example on screen, there is a possibility to eliminate/reduce negative images some people hold towards sports(P.E.) philosophy or philosophy. It also increases the possibility to engage students positively by introducing active learning of actually thinking and writing down their opinions.

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© 2019 Japan Society of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences
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