In the 400-m hurdles, race patterns based on physical fitness are an essential consideration for better performance. This study aimed to clarify the relationship between race patterns and physical fitness characteristics in male 400-m hurdlers. Thirteen collegiate 400-m hurdlers underwent measurement of maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Race analyses were also conducted. The results revealed significant correlations between the 400-m hurdles running time and MAOD (r = −0.674, p <0.05) and VO2max (r = −0.607, p <0.05). There were also significant correlations between MAOD and running speed in the early phase (r = 0.839, p <0.001) and middle phase (r = 0.605, p <0.05), and between VO2max and running speed in the middle phase (r = 0.670, p <0.05) and late phase (r = 0.565, p <0.05). It was possible to classify the subjects into four types based on their physical fitness characteristics, and different race patterns were demonstrated based on fitness type. In particular, two subjects with similar times (C: aerobic type, E: anaerobic type) had very different pacing strategies. These results suggest that anaerobic and aerobic capacities affect the speed in each phase of the 400-m hurdles, and that therefore individual physical fitness characteristics consequently affect the entire race pattern. These findings will be valuable when applying the principle of individuality to training strategies for 400-m hurdlers.