Collective efficacy has been identified as a critical determinant of team success in sport. Many studies in sport psychology have focused on the relationships between collective efficacy and psychological variables or outcomes of interest. Although an increasing number of studies on collective efficacy have been conducted in Japan, greater attention should be given to refining the methodology for assessing the construct of collective efficacy. The purposes of this study were to confirm the factor structure and establish construct validity of the Japanese translated version of the Collective Efficacy Questionnaire for Sports (J-CEQS) with revisions to its original version (Short et al., 2005). The participants were 1244 athletes from 48 teams. We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis and found that the J-CEQS showed the same multidimensional factor structure as Short's original questionnaire. To test the construct validity of the J-CEQS, we examined correlations among its subscale scores with the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ; Carron et al., 1985). All the J-CEQS subscales were significantly correlated with the group integration-task subscales. The unity subscale of the J-CEQS was also significantly correlated with all the GEQ subscales. These correlations were similar to those shown in previous studies (Martínez et al., 2011; Short et al., 2005). The present findings provide preliminary support for the utility of the J-CEQS as a measure for assessing collective efficacy in sport teams. We discuss recommendations for future studies using the J-CEQS.